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III.A.2.N.b. Hemi-sclerophyllous temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

III.A.2.N.b. Hemi-sclerophyllous temperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland

A.744 Rhododendron (catawbiense, carolinianum) - Kalmia latifolia Shrubland Alliance


(Catawba Rhododendron, Carolina Rhododendron) - Mountain Laurel Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance includes evergreen shrublands occurring on steep, exposed slopes, ridges, and rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains. These shrublands are dominated by evergreen ericaceous species, most often Rhododendron catawbiense, Rhododendron carolinianum, or Kalmia latifolia. Deciduous shrubs may be present and even locally dominant. The occurrence and relative abundance of associated shrub species vary with elevation and adjacent vegetation. These shrublands are subject to extremes in moisture due to extreme cold, high precipitation, frequent fog, and desiccating winds in combination with shallow, nutrient-poor soils. Windfall, landslides, and small, localized, lightning-caused fires are important in the establishment and maintenance of these shrublands.

Environment:

This alliance includes evergreen shrublands occurring on steep, exposed slopes, ridges, and rock outcrops in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

Vegetation:

These shrublands are dominated by evergreen ericaceous species, most often Rhododendron catawbiense, Rhododendron carolinianum, or Kalmia latifolia. Deciduous shrubs may be present and even locally dominant. The occurrence and relative abundance of associated shrub species vary with elevation and adjacent vegetation. The most typical shrub dominants are Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron catawbiense, although Gaylussacia baccata, Leiophyllum buxifolium, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium corymbosum are possible as well. Other shrubs include Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Clethra acuminata, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium stamineum, Leucothoe recurva, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Herb cover beneath the shrub canopy is absent or very sparse and may include Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens, Goodyera pubescens, Melampyrum lineare, Mitchella repens, and Pteridium aquilinum. Small, scattered trees are possible (e.g., Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ilex montana, Magnolia fraseri, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, Quercus rubra). Small openings in the shrub canopy are dominated by lichens, bare rock or herbs, with some occurrences having up to 60% exposed rock.

Dynamics:

These shrublands are subject to extremes in moisture due to extreme cold, high precipitation, frequent fog, and desiccating winds in combination with shallow, nutrient-poor soils. Windfall, landslides, and small, localized, lightning-caused fires are important in the establishment and maintenance of these shrublands.

Similar Alliances:

Leiophyllum buxifolium Dwarf-shrubland Alliance (A.1063)--more open, low-growing, evergreen shrublands, restricted to areas where Leiophyllum buxifolium dominates areas greater than 0.1 hectare. Rhododendron maximum Shrubland Alliance (A.745) Vaccinium (angustifolium, myrtilloides, pallidum) Dwarf-shrubland Alliance (A.1113)

Similar Alliance Comments:

Leiophyllum buxifolium may be locally dominant as inclusions in shrublands of this alliance (A.744).

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found in Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

GA, KY, NC, TN, VA

TNC Ecoregions:

50:C, 51:C, 59:C

USFS Ecoregions:

M221Aa:CPP, M221Be:CPP, M221Db:CCC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway, Cumberland Gap, Great Smoky Mountains); USFS (Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Jefferson, Nantahala, Pisgah)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

References:

Allard 1990, Ambrose 1990a, Brown 1941, Cain 1930a, Fahey 1976, Gant 1978, McLeod 1988, Newell and Peet 1995, Newell and Peet 1996a, Pyne 1994, Ramseur 1958, Rawinski 1992, Risk 1993, Schafale and Weakley 1990, Whittaker 1979

[CEGL003814] Kalmia latifolia - Rhododendron catawbiense - (Gaylussacia baccata, Pieris floribunda, Vaccinium corymbosum) Shrubland


Translated Name:

Mountain Laurel - Catawba Rhododendron - (Black Huckleberry, Mountain Fetterbush, Highbush Blueberry) Shrubland

Common Name:

Southern Appalachian Mountain Laurel Bald



Ecological System(s):

Southern Appalachian Grass and Shrub Bald (CES202.294)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

Karen Patterson

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This community occurs in the mountains of Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, on ridges and steep, rocky slopes at intermediate elevations (1220-1524 m [4000-5000 feet]). It also occurs in very small patches at elevations higher than 1035 m (3400 feet) in the Cumberland Mountains along the Virginia-Kentucky border. It is a mostly evergreen shrubland, although deciduous shrubs may be present and even locally dominant. Shrubs form a dense, sometimes impenetrable thicket, 1-4 m tall. The most typical shrub dominants are Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron catawbiense, although Gaylussacia baccata, Leiophyllum buxifolium, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium corymbosum are dominant or have high coverage in some occurrences. Other shrubs include Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Clethra acuminata, Ilex montana, Vaccinium stamineum, Leucothoe recurva, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Small openings in the shrub canopy are dominated by lichens, bare rock or herbs, with some occurrences having up to 60% exposed rock. Herb cover beneath the shrub canopy is absent or very sparse (<5%) and may include Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens, Goodyera pubescens, Melampyrum lineare, Mitchella repens, and Pteridium aquilinum. Smilax rotundifolia is a common vine. Small, scattered trees are possible (Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ilex montana, Magnolia fraseri, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, Picea rubens, Prunus pensylvanica, Quercus rubra, and Sorbus americana) and may be more typical of shrublands resulting from intense fires on less exposed sites. Windfall, landslides, and small, localized, lightning-caused fires are important in the establishment and maintenance of these shrublands. This community can result from secondary succession after fire or logging or can occur as a topo-edaphic climax on steep or exposed sites.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:



Blue Ridge Parkway Environment:

This association occurs on exposed rocky ridgetops and mountain summits at moderately high elevations (about 1524 m [5000 feet]). These sites are exposed to high winds and extremes in temperature and moisture conditions.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Environment:

Within the park, this community occurs in very isolated patches at the highest elevations. It occurs over shallow soils on ridgetops that are prone to windfall, fire, and drought.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Environment:

This community occurs on southerly exposed ridges and steep slopes below 5000 feet elevation. Samples range from 4190 to 4900 feet elevation. One example is in a gap, on a convex slope, and may be a fire scar. Another is on a steep northwest-facing slope.

Global Environment:

This community occurs in the mountains of Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee on ridges and steep, rocky slopes at intermediate elevations (1220-1524 m [4000-5000 feet]). It also occurs in very small patches at elevations higher than 1035 m (3400 feet) in the Cumberland Mountains along the Virginia-Kentucky border.

Vegetation Description



Blue Ridge Parkway Vegetation:

These exposed evergreen shrubland are dominated by Rhododendron catawbiense and/or Kalmia latifolia. Pieris floribunda is abundant in examples near the junction of Pisgah Ridge and the Balsam Mountains. Leiophyllum buxifolium, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Diervilla sessilifolia, Rhododendron carolinianum, and dwarfed Picea rubens, Betula alleghaniensis, Sorbus americana and Prunus pensylvanica are also sometimes present. The herb layer is sparse, with Solidago roanensis, Solidago curtisii, Deschampsia flexuosa, Dennstaedtia punctilobula, Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, and Danthonia compressa occurring in small rocky openings. Lichens and mosses are often frequent on much of the exposed rocky surfaces. Examples on Grandfather Mountain include rare or infrequently occurring species such as Liatris helleri, Trichophorum caespitosum (= Scirpus cespitosus), Populus grandidentata, Xerophyllum asphodeloides, Sibbaldiopsis tridentata, and Zigadenus leimanthoides.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Vegetation:

Within the park, this community may have an overarching tree canopy of Oxydendrum arboreum, Acer rubrum, and Nyssa sylvatica, but it is mostly composed of shrubs in the tall- and short-shrub layers. The most common shrub species are Rhododendron catawbiense and Kalmia latifolia, though other shrubs may be present. The herbaceous layer is sparse (cover <5%). This type is distinguished from Kalmia latifolia - Gaylussacia (baccata, brachycera) Cumberland Shrubland (CEGL008470) by the presence of Rhododendron catawbiense and by the relative lack of stunted pine trees.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Vegetation:

This community is a mostly evergreen shrubland, although deciduous shrubs may be present and even locally dominant. Shrubs form a dense, sometimes impenetrable thicket, 1-4 m tall. The most typical shrub dominants are Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron catawbiense, although Gaylussacia baccata, Leiophyllum buxifolium, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium corymbosum are dominant or have high coverage in some occurrences. Other shrubs include Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Clethra acuminata, Vaccinium stamineum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Small openings in the shrub canopy are dominated by rock or herbs, with some occurrences having up to 60% exposed rock. However, herb cover beneath the shrub canopy is absent or very sparse (<5%) and may include Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens, Goodyera pubescens, Melampyrum lineare, Mitchella repens, and Pteridium aquilinum. Smilax rotundifolia is a common vine. Small, scattered trees are possible (Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ilex montana, Magnolia fraseri, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, Picea rubens, and Prunus pensylvanica) and may be more typical of shrublands resulting from intense fires on less exposed sites.

Global Vegetation:

This association typically manifests as a mostly evergreen shrubland, although deciduous shrubs may be present and even locally dominant. These shrubs form a dense, sometimes impenetrable thicket, 1-4 m tall. The most typical shrub dominants are Kalmia latifolia and Rhododendron catawbiense, although Gaylussacia baccata, Leiophyllum buxifolium, Pieris floribunda, Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron maximum, and Vaccinium corymbosum are dominant or have high coverage in some occurrences. Other shrubs include Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Clethra acuminata, Ilex montana, Vaccinium simulatum, Vaccinium stamineum, Leucothoe recurva, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Small openings in the shrub canopy are dominated by lichens, bare rock or herbs, with some occurrences having up to 60% exposed rock. Herb cover beneath the shrub canopy is absent or very sparse (<5%) and may include Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens, Goodyera pubescens, Melampyrum lineare, Mitchella repens, and Pteridium aquilinum. Smilax rotundifolia is a common vine. Small, scattered trees are possible (Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ilex montana, Magnolia fraseri, Nyssa sylvatica, Oxydendrum arboreum, Prunus pensylvanica, Picea rubens, Quercus rubra, and Sorbus americana) and may be more typical of shrublands resulting from intense fires on less exposed sites.

Global Dynamics:

Windfall, landslides, and small, localized, lightning-caused fires are important in the establishment and maintenance of these shrublands. This community can result from secondary succession after fire or logging or can occur as a topo-edaphic climax on steep or exposed sites.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Kalmia latifolia Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Rhododendron catawbiense Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Broad-leaved evergreen shrub X X .

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Rhododendron catawbiense Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen tree X X .

Rhododendron maximum Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen tree X . .

Gaylussacia baccata Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Vaccinium corymbosum Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Kalmia latifolia Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub X X .

Pieris floribunda Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Rhododendron catawbiense Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen tree X . .

Leiophyllum buxifolium Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub X . .

Galax urceolata Herb (field) Dwarf-shrub . X .

Gaultheria procumbens Herb (field) Dwarf-shrub . X .

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Kalmia latifolia Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Rhododendron catawbiense Shrub/sapling (tall & short) Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Higher Taxon Note

Blue Ridge Parkway Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Hypericum buckleii G3 P

Liatris helleri G2 P

Populus grandidentata - P

Sibbaldiopsis tridentata - P

Trichophorum caespitosum - P

Xerophyllum asphodeloides - P

Zigadenus leimanthoides - P

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Glyceria nubigena G2 P Only in Great Smoky Mountains and adjacent areas near the park.

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G2G3 (15-Feb-1999). This is a locally common heath bald type in parts of the Southern Blue Ridge and Cumberland Mountains. Some occurrences represent a topo-edaphic climax, while other areas require fire to maintain the physiognomy. Fire-maintained occurrences are threatened by general fire prevention in the mountains.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:

Rhododendron carolinianum - Rhododendron catawbiense - Leiophyllum buxifolium Shrubland (CEGL007876)

Global Related Concepts:



  • Blue Ridge Shrub Bald (Ambrose 1990a) B

  • Heath Bald (Pyne 1994) B

  • Heath Bald (Blueberry Subtype) (Schafale 1998b) ?

  • Heath Bald (Low Elevation Subtype) (Schafale 1998b) ?

  • IC4a. Heath Bald Shrubland (Allard 1990) B

  • Mountain laurel-great laurel summits (CAP pers. comm. 1998) ?

Classification & Other Comments



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Other Comments:

This community typically occurs below the elevation of spruce - fir forests and adjacent to forests dominated by Table Mountain pine, northern red oak, or Fagus grandifolia ("Beech Gaps"). Occurrences at high elevations may be transitional to Rhododendron carolinianum - Rhododendron catawbiense - Leiophyllum buxifolium Shrubland (CEGL007876), and it may be difficult to distinguish the two heath bald signatures. The alliance may serve as a better mapping unit for these communities.

Global Classification Comments:

These shrublands possibly have a broader distribution and typically occur at lower elevations than other montane shrublands in the Rhododendron (catawbiense, carolinianum) - Kalmia latifolia Shrubland Alliance (A.744). In the Southern Blue Ridge, this shrubland generally occurs at elevations over 1200 meters (4000 feet) and grades into forests dominated by Quercus coccinea, Pinus rigida, Pinus pungens, and/or Quercus rubra. High-elevation occurrences may be compositionally similar to another heath bald community, Rhododendron carolinianum - Rhododendron catawbiense - Leiophyllum buxifolium Shrubland (CEGL007876).

Element Distribution



Blue Ridge Parkway Range:

This association is known from the Balsam Mountains, Pisgah Ridge, the Craggy Mountains and Grandfather Mountain in North Carolina.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Range:

This community occurs only on the highest elevations above White Rocks within the park.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Range:

This community was sampled on the Mount Le Conte quadrangle and not on the Cades Cove quadrangle, although it is possible there. This community is uncommon in the landscape but possible in other areas of the park. On the Mount Le Conte quadrangle it was sampled on Brushy Mountain, ridges along the Alum Cave Trail south of Mount Le Conte (4600 and 4900 feet), and in the southwestern portion of the quadrangle on the western ridge of Balsam Point, the vicinity of Chimney Tops, and east of Bullhead. It was also sampled on Spruce Mountain in 2002 and can be easily seen along sections of the Newfound Gap Road on both the Tennessee and North Carolina sides.

Global Range:

This community is found in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Examples in the Cumberlands of Kentucky are rare and of limited extent.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

GA, KY, NC, TN

TNC Ecoregions:

50:C, 51:C, 59:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

ECO50 added MP 2-01.

USFS Ecoregions:

M221Aa:CPP, M221Be:CPP, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway, Cumberland Gap, Great Smoky Mountains); USFS (Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Nantahala)

Element Sources


Blue Ridge Parkway Plots:

BLRI.144, BLRI.208.

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Plots:

CUGA.63.

Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

T. Govus

Cumberland Gap National Historical Park Description Author(s):

R. White

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, MOD. R. White

Global Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, mod. T. Govus and R. White

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Allard 1990 . . X X X . . . .

Ambrose 1990a . . X X X . . . .

CAP pers. comm. 1998 . . X X . . . . .

NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data . . . X . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Pyne 1994 . . X X X . . . .

Risk 1993 . X . X X . . . .

Schafale 1998b . . X X . . . . .

Schafale 2002 . . . . . . . . .

Schafale and Weakley 1990 . X . X X . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .

[CEGL007876] Rhododendron carolinianum - Rhododendron catawbiense - Leiophyllum buxifolium Shrubland


Translated Name:

Carolina Rhododendron - Catawba Rhododendron - Sand-myrtle Shrubland

Common Name:

Southern Appalachian Heath Bald



Ecological System(s):

Southern Appalachian Grass and Shrub Bald (CES202.294)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This high-elevation shrubland occurs in the Great Smoky Mountains of eastern Tennessee, on steep ridges, rock outcroppings, and landslides at elevations over 1676 m (5500 feet), in the Spruce-Fir zone. It has 25-100% shrub cover and may occur as a dense shrubland, 2-4 m tall, or as a shorter, more open shrubland with areas of exposed rock, scattered mats of prostrate vegetation, and isolated clumps of herbaceous species. The most common shrubs are Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron catawbiense, and Leiophyllum buxifolium, locally dominant in patches and forming a mosaic. Shrubs are less than 1 m tall on the steepest, rockiest, most exposed sites, and taller on gentle, more protected sites with greater soil development. Other associated shrubs with minor coverage may include Abies fraseri, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Diervilla sessilifolia, Ilex montana, Menziesia pilosa, Pieris floribunda, Prunus pensylvanica, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Under tall, dense shrubs there is little herb cover, but in more open shrublands, on steep cliffs with seepage, herbaceous species may grow in dense patches on ledges and crevices. Herbaceous species such as Calamagrostis cainii, Carex misera, Geum radiatum, Saxifraga michauxii, Solidago glomerata, and Trichophorum caespitosum (= Scirpus cespitosus) are associated with this community on the summits of Mount LeConte. Thick hummocks of lichens and mosses can occur on flatter sites, and scattered wind-sheared trees of Picea rubens or Abies fraseri are possible in some examples. High solar irradiation and desiccating winds, in combination with the shallow, nutrient-poor soils, are key environmental factors influencing this community. Locally, vegetation is influenced by seepage areas on steep cliffs and ledges. It is known from areas of exposed slate on the steep ridges of Mount LeConte (Ramseur 1958).

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:



Blue Ridge Parkway Environment:

This association occurs on exposed high-elevation ridgetops (above 1676 m [5500 feet]) or sideslopes, usually in small patches associated with landslide areas, such as are in the Balsam Mountains in the vicinity of Waterrock Knob. These are shallow-to-rock areas often including seepage areas with abundant mosses and lichens.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Environment:

This community occurs on steep ridges, rock outcroppings, and landslides at elevations over 5500 feet, in the spruce-fir zone. High solar irradiation and desiccating winds, in combination with the shallow, nutrient-poor soils, are key environmental factors influencing this community. Locally vegetation is influenced by seepage areas on steep cliffs and ledges (e.g., southwest portion of the Mount Le Conte summit). This community is known from areas of exposed slate on the steep ridges of Mount Le Conte (Ramseur 1958). Perhaps the best examples of this community exist on Charlies Bunion.

Global Environment:

This association occurs on steep ridges, rock outcroppings, and landslides at elevations over 1676 m (5500 feet), in the Spruce-Fir zone.

Vegetation Description



Blue Ridge Parkway Vegetation:

This association is made up of a dense to patchy shrub layer dominated by Rhododendron catawbiense and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. It is usually surrounded by a sparse, dwarfed canopy/understory stratum of Picea rubens and Abies fraseri. Other important shrubs found in parkway examples of this association include Diervilla sessilifolia, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Prunus pensylvanica, Rubus canadensis, and Ribes rotundifolium. Herbaceous species occur in small openings on exposed rocks that are typically covered with mosses and lichens. Carex pensylvanica, Solidago glomerata, Angelica triquinata, Hypericum graveolens, Oclemena acuminata, Prenanthes roanensis, Ageratina altissima var. roanensis, and Dennstaedtia punctilobula are some of the more frequently occurring species.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Vegetation:

This community has 25-100% shrub cover and may occur as a dense shrubland, 2-4 m tall, or as a shorter, more open shrubland with areas of exposed rock, scattered mats of prostrate vegetation, and isolated clumps of herbaceous species. The most common shrubs are Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron catawbiense, and Leiophyllum buxifolium, locally dominant in patches and forming a mosaic. Shrubs are less than 1 m tall on the steepest, rockiest, most exposed sites, and taller on gentle, more protected sites with greater soil development. Other associated shrubs with minor coverage may include Abies fraseri, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Diervilla sessilifolia, Ilex montana, Menziesia pilosa, Pieris floribunda, Prunus pensylvanica, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Under tall dense shrubs there is little herb cover, but in more open shrublands, on steep cliffs with seepage, herbaceous species may grow in dense patches on ledges and crevices. Herbaceous species such as Calamagrostis cainii, Carex misera, Geum radiatum, Saxifraga michauxii, Solidago glomerata, Trichophorum caespitosum (= Scirpus cespitosus) are associated with this community on the summits of Mount Le Conte. Thick hummocks of lichens and mosses can occur on flatter sites. Scattered wind-sheared trees of Picea rubens or Abies fraseri are possible in some examples.

Global Vegetation:

This association has 25-100% shrub cover and may occur as a dense shrubland, 2-4 m tall, or as a shorter, more open shrubland with areas of exposed rock, scattered mats of prostrate vegetation, and isolated clumps of herbaceous species. The most common shrubs are Rhododendron carolinianum, Rhododendron catawbiense, and Leiophyllum buxifolium, locally dominant in patches and forming a mosaic. Shrubs are less than 1 m tall on the steepest, rockiest, most exposed sites, and taller on gentle, more protected sites with greater soil development. Other associated shrubs with minor coverage may include Abies fraseri, Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa), Diervilla sessilifolia, Ilex montana, Menziesia pilosa, Pieris floribunda, Prunus pensylvanica, Vaccinium corymbosum, Vaccinium erythrocarpum, and Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides. Under tall, dense shrubs there is little herb cover, but in more open shrublands, on steep cliffs with seepage, herbaceous species may grow in dense patches on ledges and crevices. Herbaceous species such as Calamagrostis cainii, Carex misera, Geum radiatum, Saxifraga michauxii, Solidago glomerata, and Trichophorum caespitosum (= Scirpus cespitosus) are associated with this community on the summits of Mount LeConte. Thick hummocks of lichens and mosses can occur on flatter sites, and scattered wind-sheared trees of Picea rubens or Abies fraseri are possible in some examples.

Global Dynamics:

High solar irradiation and desiccating winds, in combination with the shallow, nutrient-poor soils, are key environmental factors influencing this community. Locally, vegetation is influenced by seepage areas on steep cliffs and ledges. It is known from areas of exposed slate on the steep ridges of Mount LeConte (Ramseur 1958).

Blue Ridge Parkway Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Diervilla sessilifolia Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Rhododendron catawbiense Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub . X .

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Abies fraseri Tall shrub/sapling Needle-leaved tree . X .

Picea rubens Tall shrub/sapling Needle-leaved tree . X .

Rhododendron catawbiense Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen tree X X .

Diervilla sessilifolia Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Menziesia pilosa Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved deciduous shrub . X .

Leiophyllum buxifolium Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub X X .

Rhododendron carolinianum Short shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen shrub X X .

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Blue Ridge Parkway Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G5T3T4 P

Hypericum graveolens G3 P

Prenanthes roanensis G3 P

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Abies fraseri G2 P

Carex misera G3 P

Solidago glomerata G3 P

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G1 (16-Feb-1999). This community is limited in extent, occurring as scattered pockets in the southern Appalachian Mountains, possibly limited to the Great Smoky Mountains. This fragile community is threatened by heavy recreational use.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:

Kalmia latifolia - Rhododendron catawbiense - (Gaylussacia baccata, Pieris floribunda, Vaccinium corymbosum) Shrubland (CEGL003814) Rhododendron carolinianum Shrubland (CEGL003816)

Global Related Concepts:



  • Heath Bald, BR (Pyne 1994) B

  • IC4a. Heath Bald Shrubland (Allard 1990) B

Classification & Other Comments



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Other Comments:

This shrubland grades into vegetation dominated by Picea rubens and/or Abies fraseri. Particularly on the summit and high slopes of Mount Le Conte, the taxonomic distinction between Rhododendron minus and Rhododendron carolinianum is uncertain. Some of what is treated here as Rhododendron carolinianum may prove to be Rhododendron minus. It may be difficult to distinguish the signature of this heath bald type from that of Kalmia latifolia - Rhododendron catawbiense - (Gaylussacia baccata, Pieris floribunda, Vaccinium corymbosum) Shrubland (CEGL003814), especially at transitional elevations. The alliance may serve as a better mapping unit for these communities.

Global Classification Comments:

The taxonomic distinctions between Rhododendron minus and Rhododendron carolinianum are currently uncertain. Some of what is treated here as Rhododendron carolinianum may prove to be Rhododendron minus. This association contains a portion of the former concept of Rhododendron carolinianum Shrubland (CEGL003816), which occurs at lower elevations in areas of quartzite and meta-arkose geology.

Element Distribution



Blue Ridge Parkway Range:

This association is restricted to the Balsam Mountains in North Carolina.

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Range:

This community was sampled from the highest elevations of the Mount Le Conte quadrangle and neighboring quadrangles. It may occur in other high-elevation areas of the park. On the Mount Le Conte quadrangle this community was sampled from Rocky Spur north of Mount Le Conte; from Clifftop west of the Mount Le Conte summit; and from the Jumpoff, in the vicinity of Mount Kephart. In addition, it was sampled from Charlie's Bunion off of the Appalachian Trail.

Global Range:

This high-elevation shrubland occurs in the Great Smoky Mountains of eastern Tennessee.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

NC, TN

TNC Ecoregions:

51:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:



USFS Ecoregions:

M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway, Great Smoky Mountains)

Element Sources


Blue Ridge Parkway Plots:

BLRI.152.

Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

T. Govus

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, MOD. R. White

Global Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson, mod. T. Govus

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Allard 1990 . . X X X . . . .

NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data . . . X . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Pyne 1994 . . X X . . . . .

Ramseur 1958 . X . X X . . . .

Risk 1993 . X . X X . . . .

Schafale and Weakley 1990 . . . X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .

Whittaker 1979 . X . X X . . . .

A.745 Rhododendron maximum Shrubland Alliance


Great Rhododendron Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance includes riparian shrublands and shrub thickets of mesic slopes dominated by Rhododendron maximum, without a significant tree canopy. Rhododendron maximum-dominated shrublands are less frequently found on more xeric ridges and sideslopes, on sites which have been subjected to extreme crown fires. Shrublands in this alliance are typically tall (over 2 m) and occur over acidic soils. These shrublands can occur as the result of disturbance and will succeed to forest with an ericaceous understory without some form of disturbance. Rhododendron maximum shrublands frequently occur adjacent to wet herbaceous cliff vegetation, wetland riparian shrublands, or within forests dominated by Tsuga canadensis, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus strobus, Quercus prinus, Picea rubens, or Abies fraseri.

Environment:



Vegetation:



Dynamics:



Similar Alliances:

Alnus serrulata - Salix sericea - Rhododendron (catawbiense, maximum) Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1880)--wetland vegetation dominated by Rhododendron maximum. Rhododendron (catawbiense, carolinianum) - Kalmia latifolia Shrubland Alliance (A.744)

Similar Alliance Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

Shrublands in this alliance occur in the Appalachian Mountains, Ridge and Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, and Cumberland Mountains. This alliance is found in Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and West Virginia, and possibly Virginia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

GA, NC, SC, TN, VA?, WV

TNC Ecoregions:

49:P, 51:C

USFS Ecoregions:

221Eb:PP?, M221Ab:CC?, M221Bd:CC?, M221Be:CC?, M221Cc:CC?, M221Cd:CC?, M221Ce:CC?, M221Db:CCP, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?); USFS (Chattahoochee, Cherokee, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

References:

Allard 1990, Core 1966, Gant 1978, Hodgdon and Pike 1961, McGee and Smith 1967, McLeod 1981, Monk et al. 1985, Nelson 1986, Phillips and Murdy 1985, Plocher and Carvell 1987, Rawinski 1992

[CEGL003819] Rhododendron maximum Upland Shrubland


Translated Name:

Great Rhododendron Upland Shrubland

Common Name:

Montane Rhododendron Thicket



Ecological System(s):

Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest (CES202.593)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This community occurs along streams and on protected slopes in the mountains of North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, Georgia, West Virginia, and Kentucky. It is a broad-leaved, evergreen shrubland which forms a continuous, dense shrub canopy up to 5 m tall. Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron minus, and Rhododendron catawbiense may also occur as components of the shrub stratum. Shrub vegetation beneath the upper shrub canopy may be open to dense depending on the stand's age and topographic setting. The ground layer is dominated by leaf litter or bare soil, although scattered herbs and woody seedlings do occur. Seedlings and saplings of Rhododendron maximum, Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Betula alleghaniensis, and Tsuga canadensis are common and typical herbs include Dryopteris intermedia, Heuchera villosa, Viola spp., Thelypteris noveboracensis, Listera smallii, and Galax urceolata. This shrubland is typical along streams and on mesic, unexposed, often north-facing slopes at elevations of approximately 300-1100 m (1000-3000 feet). Soils supporting this community are typically acid. Occurrences at edges of streams may flood during rainy seasons. This community can occur as the result of disturbance and will succeed to forest with an ericaceous understory without some form of disturbance. This community may have scattered woody species that are greater than 5 m tall but with generally less than 10% total cover.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:



Global Environment:

This community occurs along streams and on mesic, unexposed, often north-facing slopes at elevations of approximately 300-1100 m (1000-3000 feet). Soils supporting this community are typically acid. Occurrences at edges of streams may flood during rainy seasons.

Vegetation Description



Global Vegetation:

This evergreen, sclerophyllous shrubland is dominated by Rhododendron maximum which forms a continuous, dense shrub canopy up to 5 m tall. Kalmia latifolia, Rhododendron minus, and Rhododendron catawbiense may also occur as components of the shrub stratum. Shrub vegetation beneath the upper shrub canopy may be open to dense depending on the stand's age and topographic setting. Species such as Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, and Liriodendron tulipifera in the tree canopy stratum make up less than 10% cover. The ground layer is dominated by leaf litter or bare soil although scattered herbs and woody seedlings do occur. Seedlings and saplings of Rhododendron maximum, Acer rubrum, Betula lenta, Betula alleghaniensis, and Tsuga canadensis are common, and typical herbs include Dryopteris intermedia, Heuchera villosa, Viola spp., Thelypteris noveboracensis, Listera smallii, and Galax urceolata.

Global Dynamics:

Rhododendron maximum sprouts vigorously after disturbance, and this community often results from logging, fire, chestnut blight, or cessation of grazing. Stems greater than 4 cm in diameter survive hot fires, and fire generally stimulates basal sprouting, although intense annual fires may suppress reestablishment (Core 1966). Drastic overstory removal, heavy shading, and disease have been found to decrease the density of or kill Rhododendron (Hodgdon and Pike 1961).
This shrubland will become established by invading disturbed or cleared lands if there is adequate moisture and lack of direct sunlight. This community can also result from secondary succession when a forest's canopy is removed (by logging, disease, etc.) and the Rhododendron understory closes, forming a dense shrubland. The reestablishment of woody competitors is inhibited by the shade of the dense shrub canopy as well as by phytotoxins in the litter and soil (Gant 1978). Rhododendron maximum Shrubland may persist for over 60 years on a site (Ploucher and Carvell 1987) but will succeed to a forested community as trees that become established in thicket openings mature.

Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Rhododendron maximum Tall shrub/sapling Broad-leaved evergreen tree X X .

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G3?Q (14-Dec-1998). This association is of uncertain validity and, even if valid, is of uncertain circumscription.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:



Global Related Concepts:



  • IC4b. Montane Rhododendron Thicket (Allard 1990) ?

  • Low Elevation Heath Bluff (Montane Rhododendron Subtype) (Schafale 1998b) ?

  • Submesotrophic Scrub (Rawinski 1992) ?

Classification & Other Comments



Global Classification Comments:

Rhododendron maximum Shrubland frequently occurs adjacent to wet herbaceous cliff vegetation, riparian shrublands, or within forests dominated by Tsuga canadensis, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus strobus, Quercus prinus, Picea rubens, or Abies fraseri. Similar ericaceous shrublands occur at higher elevations, over 1100 meters (3500 feet), in the southern Appalachian Mountains. These high-elevation "heath balds" are distinguished from Rhododendron maximum Upland Shrubland by the dominance of Rhododendron catawbiense or by the occurrence of ericaceous shrubs typical of high-elevation environments such as Leiophyllum buxifolium, Menziesia pilosa, and Photinia melanocarpa (= Aronia melanocarpa ). Disjunct populations of Rhododendron maximum are found in Maine and New Hampshire, but these populations may represent a different community (Hodgdon and Pike 1961).

Element Distribution



Global Range:

This community occurs in the Southern Blue Ridge, but may be possible throughout the range of Rhododendron maximum.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

GA, NC, SC, TN, VA?, WV

TNC Ecoregions:

49:P, 51:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

ECO50 deleted per SL notes REE 7-00. ECO59 deleted KP 7-00.

USFS Ecoregions:

221E:PP, M221A:CC, M221B:CC, M221C:CC, M221Dc:CCC, M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?); USFS (Chattahoochee?, Cherokee, Nantahala, Pisgah, Sumter)

Element Sources


Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

R. White

Global Description Author(s):

K.D. Patterson

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Allard 1990 . . X X X . . . .

Core 1966 . X . X X . . . .

Gant 1978 . X . X X . . . .

Hodgdon and Pike 1961 . X . X X . . . .

McGee and Smith 1967 . X . X X . . . .

Monk et al. 1985 . X . X X . . . .

Nelson 1986 . X . X X . . . .

Phillips and Murdy 1985 . X . X X . . . .

Plocher and Carvell 1987 . X . X X . . . .

Rawinski 1992 . . X X X . . . .

Schafale 1998b . . X X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .


A.750 Serenoa repens Temperate Shrubland Alliance


Saw Palmetto Temperate Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

Shrublands dominated or codominated by Serenoa repens. This alliance includes coastal strand communities of the east coast of Florida and possibly adjacent Georgia. There is considerable floristic variation from north to south, with the more northern examples being codominated by Serenoa repens and Ilex vomitoria and lacking more southern (subtropical) floristic elements. These relatively northern examples contain Sideroxylon tenax, Persea borbonia, Sabal palmetto (dwarfed), Zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Smilax auriculata, Monarda punctata, Erythrina herbacea, and Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola. The more southern examples contain a great variety of shrubs, including Serenoa repens, Coccoloba uvifera, Sideroxylon tenax, Persea borbonia, and Myrsine floridana, as well as Quercus virginiana and Myrcianthes fragrans, but few truly tropical components. Other characteristic species in the southern examples include Quercus virginiana (dwarfed), Myrcianthes fragrans, Forestiera segregata, Sabal palmetto (dwarfed), Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Schinus terebinthifolius (exotic), and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis.

Environment:



Vegetation:

Shrublands dominated or codominated by Serenoa repens. There is considerable floristic variation from north to south, with the more northern examples being codominated by Serenoa repens and Ilex vomitoria and lacking more southern (subtropical) floristic elements. These relatively northern examples contain Sideroxylon tenax, Persea borbonia, Sabal palmetto (dwarfed), Zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Smilax auriculata, Monarda punctata, Erythrina herbacea, and Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola. The more southern examples contain a great variety of shrubs, including Serenoa repens, Coccoloba uvifera, Sideroxylon tenax, Persea borbonia, and Myrsine floridana, as well as Quercus virginiana and Myrcianthes fragrans, but few truly tropical components. Other characteristic species in the southern examples include Quercus virginiana (dwarfed), Myrcianthes fragrans, Forestiera segregata, Sabal palmetto (dwarfed), Morella cerifera (= Myrica cerifera), Schinus terebinthifolius (exotic), and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis.

Dynamics:



Similar Alliances:

Coccoloba uvifera Shrubland Alliance (A.715)

Similar Alliance Comments:

This alliance (A.750) lacks the more tropical components of Serenoa repens-dominated vegetation in the Coccoloba uvifera Shrubland Alliance (A.715).

Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance includes coastal strand communities of the east coast of Florida and adjacent Georgia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

FL, GA

TNC Ecoregions:

54:P, 55:C, 56:C, 57:P

USFS Ecoregions:

232Ce:C??, 232Gb:CCC

Federal Lands:

DOD (Cape Canaveral); NPS (Canaveral, Cumberland Island, Fort Matanzas); USFWS (Merritt Island)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

D.J. Allard 93, mod. A.S. Weakley

References:

Eyre 1980, FNAI 1990, Johnson and Muller 1993a, Schmalzer and Hinkle 1992b

[CEGL003812] Serenoa repens - Sabal palmetto - Ilex vomitoria - Sideroxylon tenax Shrubland


Translated Name:

Saw Palmetto - Cabbage Palmetto - Yaupon - Tough Bumelia Shrubland

Common Name:

Florida Coastal Strand (Temperate Palmetto Type)



Ecological System(s):

Atlantic Coastal Plain Southern Dune and Maritime Grassland (CES203.273)

Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

A.S. Weakley

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This association represents a "coastal strand" community dominated by Serenoa repens and Ilex vomitoria. This type ranges from Volusia County, Florida, to southern Georgia. Other characteristic species include Sabal palmetto and Sideroxylon tenax. It differs from coastal strand vegetation to the south in its characteristic codominance of Ilex vomitoria and the rarity or absence of more southern (subtropical) floristic elements such as Coccoloba uvifera, Myrsine floridana, Forestiera segregata, and Myrcianthes fragrans. The presence of Sideroxylon tenax and Serenoa repens and the absence of vines differentiate it from the dune "shrub/vine" thickets on barrier islands of North and South Carolina.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:



Global Environment:

This community occurs as a continuous strip behind the sea oats dunes from St. Johns to southern Volusia counties, Florida. From St. Johns County, Florida, north to Cumberland Island, Georgia, this association may occur as isolated stands, either in an herbaceous matrix behind the foredunes or fronting maritime hammocks.

Vegetation Description



Global Vegetation:

The most abundant species in this strand community are Serenoa repens and Ilex vomitoria, followed by occasional dwarfed individuals of Sabal palmetto and Sideroxylon tenax (Johnson and Muller 1993a). Other species include Persea borbonia, Magnolia grandiflora (dwarfed), Zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Smilax auriculata, Monarda punctata, Erythrina herbacea, and, less frequently, Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola. The presence of Sideroxylon tenax and Serenoa repens and the absence of vines differentiate it from the dune "shrub/vine" thickets on barrier islands of North and South Carolina (Sandifer et al. 1980, p. 119). This strand type is distinguished from more southerly ranging types by the frequent presence of Ilex vomitoria (Johnson and Muller 1993a).

Global Dynamics:



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Sideroxylon tenax G3? P

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G1 (29-Dec-1999). Area of a naturally restricted community further diminished by coastal development.

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:

Serenoa repens - Sabal palmetto - Coccoloba uvifera - Sideroxylon tenax - Myrcianthes fragrans - Myrsine floridana Shrubland (CEGL003811)--has species with tropical affinities and lacks Ilex vomitoria.

Global Related Concepts:



Classification & Other Comments



Global Classification Comments:

Sabal palmetto and Sideroxylon tenax are not community dominants, but are encountered less frequently in this association (Johnson and Muller 1993a). Kurz (1942) was probably the first to describe the range of saw palmetto scrub in Florida. He mapped many coastal profiles in Florida, including zones analogous to this association. Austin and Coleman-Marios (1977) may have been the first to use the term strand. See Johnson and Muller (1993a, 1993b).

Element Distribution



Global Range:

This community occurs in coastal dune environments as a continuous strip behind the sea oats dunes from southern Volusia County, Florida, north to Cumberland Island, Georgia.

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

FL, GA

TNC Ecoregions:

55:C, 56:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:

ECO56 changed from ? to C based on presence on Cumberland Island REE 7-02.

USFS Ecoregions:

232Ce:C??, 232Gb:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Cumberland Island, Fort Matanzas)

Element Sources


Global Description Author(s):

R.E. Evans, mod. M. Pyne

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

Austin and Coleman-Marois 1977 . . . X . . . . .

FNAI 1990 . . . X . . . . .

FNAI 1992b . X . X . . . . .

Johnson and Muller 1993a . X . X . . . . .

Johnson and Muller 1993b . X . X . . . . .

Kurz 1942 . . . X . . . . .

Peet et al. unpubl. data 2002 . . . X . . . . .

Sandifer et al. 1980 . X . X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .


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