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III.B.2.N.g. Saturated cold-deciduous shrubland - I. Forest 10 I. A n a. Lowland tropical or subtropical seasonal...

III.B.2.N.g. Saturated cold-deciduous shrubland

A.1014 Alnus serrulata Saturated Shrubland Alliance


Smooth Alder Saturated Shrubland Alliance

Alliance Concept



Summary:

This alliance includes non-alluvial, palustrine vegetation strongly dominated by Alnus serrulata and often, but not always, with substantial Sphagnum cover. Occurrences of this alliance can have small to moderately large herbaceous openings as well, but where open herbaceous patches are large and well-developed, communities in V.A.5.N.m should be considered. Communities in this alliance are saturated shrublands with Alnus serrulata as a strong dominant component, but other shrub species may be present. This alliance is found throughout the southeastern United States, in montane and non-montane ecoregions. Associations in this alliance lack the montane floristics of associations in the Alnus serrulata - Salix sericea - Rhododendron (catawbiense, maximum) Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1880). Vegetation at Fort Benning, Georgia (East Gulf Coastal Plain - Upper East Gulf Coastal Plain transition region), on the upper ends of beaver ponds which are inclusions in a Nyssa biflora saturated forest, apparently belong here.

Environment:



Vegetation:



Dynamics:



Similar Alliances:

Alnus serrulata - Salix sericea - Rhododendron (catawbiense, maximum) Saturated Shrubland Alliance (A.1880)--of more "montane" floristics. Alnus serrulata Temporarily Flooded Shrubland Alliance (A.943)--includes temporarily flooded Alnus serrulata shrublands of riparian habitats.

Similar Alliance Comments:



Alliance Distribution



Range:

This alliance is found throughout the southeastern United States, in montane and non-montane ecoregions. It is reported from Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and possibly West Virginia.

Nations:

US

Subnations:

AL, GA, KY, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV?

TNC Ecoregions:

40:?, 43:C, 44:C, 49:C, 50:C, 51:C, 52:C, 53:P, 59:C

USFS Ecoregions:

221He:CCC, 222E:CC, 231Ac:CCC, 231Bc:CCC, 231Bd:CCC, 231Dd:CCC, 234A:PP, M221Aa:CCC, M221Ab:CCC, M221Ba:CC?, M221Bd:CC?, M221Be:CC?, M221Cd:CCP, M221Db:CCC, M221Dd:CCC, M222:?

Federal Lands:

DOD (Fort Benning); NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?, Cumberland Gap, Great Smoky Mountains, Kings Mountain); USFS (Daniel Boone, George Washington, Jefferson, Talladega, Tuskegee)

Alliance Sources



Author(s):

D.J. Allard 8-94, mod. A.S. Weakley

References:

Zollner pers. comm.

[CEGL003909] Alnus serrulata - Lindera benzoin / Scutellaria lateriflora - Thelypteris noveboracensis Shrubland


Translated Name:

Smooth Alder - Northern Spicebush / Mad-dog Skullcap - New York Fern Shrubland

Common Name:

Montane Low-Elevation Seep



Ecological System(s):

Southern and Central Appalachian Bog and Fen (CES202.300)

Southern Appalachian Seepage Wetland (CES202.317)



Status:

Standard

Circumscription Confidence:

2 - Moderate

Concept Author(s):

A.S. Weakley

Element Concept



Global Summary:

This low-elevation seep is known from low elevations in the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina, but is likely more widespread. The type may need substantial revision as more information is collected. This community occurs in stream headwaters and on the edges of small stream floodplains, where groundwater seepage emerges and provides a relatively constant flow and saturated conditions. A small streamlet (less than 1 m wide) flows through the community, and saturated and upland conditions form a mosaic through the remainder of the community. Physiognomy is variable, and may include herbaceous-dominated patches, shrubby areas, and areas with an open canopy of trees. The open to scattered canopy includes species such as Betula lenta, Magnolia tripetala, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Nyssa sylvatica. The shrub stratum is open to dense, and is dominated by Alnus serrulata, Lyonia ligustrina, Kalmia latifolia, Lindera benzoin var. benzoin, and Vaccinium fuscatum. Typical herbaceous species include Scutellaria lateriflora, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Mimulus ringens, Osmunda cinnamomea, Ludwigia palustris, Apios americana, Oxypolis rigidior, Leersia virginica, Galium obtusum, Viola cucullata, Lycopus virginicus, Vernonia noveboracensis, Boehmeria cylindrica, Solidago canadensis, Impatiens capensis, Scirpus georgianus, Hypericum mutilum, Rhexia virginica, Ludwigia alternifolia, Solidago patula var. patula, Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata, Carex gynandra, and Juncus gymnocarpus.

Environmental Description



USFWS Wetland System:

Palustrine

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Environment:

Same as global.

Global Environment:

This community occurs in stream headwaters and on the edges of small stream floodplains, where groundwater seepage emerges and provides a relatively constant flow and saturated conditions. A small streamlet (less than 1 m wide) flows through the community, and saturated and upland conditions form a mosaic through the remainder of the community.

Vegetation Description



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Vegetation:

Same as global.

Global Vegetation:

Physiognomy is variable, and may include herbaceous-dominated patches, shrubby areas, and areas with an open canopy of trees. The open to scattered canopy includes species such as Betula lenta, Magnolia tripetala, Acer rubrum var. trilobum, and Nyssa sylvatica. The shrub stratum is open to dense, and is dominated by Alnus serrulata, Lyonia ligustrina, Kalmia latifolia, Lindera benzoin var. benzoin, and Vaccinium fuscatum. Typical herbaceous species include Scutellaria lateriflora, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Mimulus ringens, Osmunda cinnamomea, Ludwigia palustris, Apios americana, Oxypolis rigidior, Leersia virginica, Galium obtusum, Viola cucullata, Lycopus virginicus, Vernonia noveboracensis, Boehmeria cylindrica, Solidago altissima, Impatiens capensis, Scirpus georgianus, Hypericum mutilum, Rhexia virginica, Ludwigia alternifolia, Solidago patula var. patula, Rudbeckia laciniata var. laciniata, Carex gynandra, and Juncus gymnocarpus.

Global Dynamics:



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Global Floristic Composition



Species Name Stratum Lifeform Dom Char Const

Higher Taxon Note

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Juncus gymnocarpus - P

Global Other Noteworthy Species



Species Name GRank Animal Note (specify Rare (geog area), Invasive, Animal, or Other)

Conservation Status Rank



Global Rank & Reasons:

G2? (1-Nov-2002).

Related Concepts



Global Similar Associations:



Global Related Concepts:



Classification & Other Comments



Global Classification Comments:

More information is needed in order to fully understand the composition and distribution of this type.

Element Distribution



Great Smoky Mountains National Park Range:

Documented by Plot 546, along the Gold Mine Loop Trail, in the area north of Lake Fontana.

Global Range:

This low-elevation seep is found in the Southern Appalachians at low elevations. It has been documented from North Carolina, and is likely to occur in adjacent states (South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia).

Nations:

US

States/Provinces:

GA?, KY?, NC, SC?, TN?

TNC Ecoregions:

51:C

TNC Ecoregion Comments:



USFS Ecoregions:

M221Dd:CCC

Federal Lands:

NPS (Blue Ridge Parkway?, Great Smoky Mountains)

Element Sources


Blue Ridge Parkway Description Author(s):

R. White

Great Smoky Mountains National Park Description Author(s):

A.S. WEAKLEY

Global Description Author(s):

A.S. Weakley

References

(enter Reference Code when known, otherwise, enter Short Citation; enter full citation if reference is new)

Reference (*=concept ref) name classif related char rank eospec eorank manage image

NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern U.S. unpubl. data . X . X . . . . .

Southeastern Ecology Working Group n.d.* X° . . . . . . . .

TDNH unpubl. data . . . . . . . . .


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